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Characterization of the cytokine storm reflects hyperinflammatory endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19

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Title: Characterization of the cytokine storm reflects hyperinflammatory endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19
Authors: Sims, JT
Krishnan, V
Chang, C-Y
Eagle, SM
Casalini, G
Rodgers, GH
Bivi, N
Nickoloff, BJ
Konrad, RJ
De Bono, S
Higgs, RE
Benschop, RJ
Ottaviani, S
Cardosa, A
Nirula, A
Corbellino, M
Stebbing, J
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Background Physicians treating COVID-19 patients increasingly believe that the hyperinflammatory acute stage of COVID-19 results in a cytokine storm. The circulating biomarkers seen across the spectrum of COVID-19 have not been characterized compared to healthy controls, but such analyses are likely to yield insights into the pursuit of interventions that adequately reduce the burden of these cytokine storms. Objective To identify and characterize the host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we assessed levels of proteins related to immune responses and cardiovascular disease, in patients stratified as mild, moderate, and severe, versus matched healthy controls. Methods Blood samples from adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were analyzed using high-throughput and ultrasensitive proteomic platforms and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls to provide insights into differential regulation of 185 markers. Results Results indicate a dominant hyperinflammatory milieu in the circulation and vascular endothelial damage markers within COVID-19 patients, and strong biomarker association with patient response as measured by Ordinal scale. As patients progress, we observe statistically significant dysregulation of IFNγ, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-19, MCP-1, -2, -3, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL5, ENRAGE and PARP-1. Furthermore, in a limited series of patients who were sampled frequently confirming reliability and reproducibility of our assays, we demonstrate that intervention with baricitinib attenuates these circulating biomarkers associated with the cytokine storm. Conclusion These wide-ranging circulating biomarkers show an association with increased disease severity and may help stratify patients and selection of therapeutic options. They also provide insights into mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the host response.
Issue Date: Jan-2021
Date of Acceptance: 12-Aug-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/82435
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.08.031
ISSN: 0091-6749
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 107
End Page: 111
Journal / Book Title: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volume: 147
Issue: 1
Copyright Statement: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NCND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Funder's Grant Number: BSAC-COVID-32
Keywords: COVID-19
Ordinal Scale
baricitinib
biomarkers
cardiovascular
inflammation
Adult
Biomarkers
COVID-19
Cytokine Release Syndrome
Cytokines
Female
Humans
Male
Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
Proteomics
SARS-CoV-2
Humans
Cytokines
Proteomics
Adult
Female
Male
Biomarkers
Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
Cytokine Release Syndrome
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
Allergy
1107 Immunology
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2020-09-10
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer
Faculty of Medicine
Imperial College London COVID-19



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