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The respiratory microbiome in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is distinct from that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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Title: The respiratory microbiome in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is distinct from that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Authors: Invernizzi, R
Wu, BG
Barnett, J
Ghai, P
Kingston, S
Hewitt, RJ
Feary, J
Li, Y
Chua, F
Wu, Z
Wells, AU
Renzoni, EA
Nicholson, AG
Rice, A
Devaraj, A
Segal, LN
Byrne, AJ
Maher, TM
Lloyd, CM
Molyneaux, PL
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: RATIONALE: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is a condition that arises following repeated exposure and sensitisation to inhaled antigens. The lung microbiome is increasingly implicated in respiratory disease but to date, no study has investigated the composition of microbial communities in the lower airways in CHP. OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare the airway microbiome in subjects with CHP, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and controls. METHODS: We prospectively recruited individuals diagnosed with CHP (n=110), IPF (n=45) and controls (n=28). Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and bacterial DNA was isolated, quantified by qPCR and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to characterise the bacterial communities in the lower airways. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Distinct differences in the microbial profiles were evident in the lower airways of subjects with CHP and IPF. At the phylum level, the prevailing microbiota of both IPF and CHP subjects included Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. However, in IPF, Firmicutes dominated while the percentage of reads assigned to Proteobacteria in the same group was significantly lower compared to CHP subjects. At the genus level, Staphylococcus was increased in CHP and Actinomyces and Veillonella in IPF. The lower airway bacterial burden in CHP subjects was higher than controls but lower than those with IPF. In contrast to IPF, there was no association between bacterial burden and survival in CHP. CONCLUSIONS: The microbial profile of the lower airways in subjects with CHP is distinct from that of IPF and, notably, bacterial burden in individuals with CHP fails to predict survival.
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance: 21-Jul-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/81112
DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202002-0460OC
ISSN: 1073-449X
Publisher: American Thoracic Society
Start Page: 339
End Page: 347
Journal / Book Title: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Volume: 203
Issue: 3
Copyright Statement: © 2020 by the American Thoracic Society. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: National Institute for Health Research
British Lung Foundation
National Institute for Health Research
British Lung Foundation
Action for Pulmonary Fibrosis
Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: BRU 6279
BLF-RMF 15-16
Keywords: 16S
lung microbiota
lung microbiota
11 Medical and Health Sciences
Respiratory System
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: United States
Online Publication Date: 2020-07-21
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine

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