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3D shape instantiation for intra-operative navigation from a single 2D projection

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Title: 3D shape instantiation for intra-operative navigation from a single 2D projection
Authors: Zhou, Xiaoyun
Item Type: Thesis or dissertation
Abstract: Unlike traditional open surgery where surgeons can see the operation area clearly, in robot-assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), a surgeon’s view of the region of interest is usually limited. Currently, 2D images from fluoroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), endoscopy or ultrasound are used for intra-operative guidance as real-time 3D volumetric acquisition is not always possible due to the acquisition speed or exposure constraints. 3D reconstruction, however, is key to navigation in complex in vivo geometries and can help resolve this issue. Novel 3D shape instantiation schemes are developed in this thesis, which can reconstruct the high-resolution 3D shape of a target from limited 2D views, especially a single 2D projection or slice. To achieve a complete and automatic 3D shape instantiation pipeline, segmentation schemes based on deep learning are also investigated. These include normalization schemes for training U-Nets and network architecture design of Atrous Convolutional Neural Networks (ACNNs). For U-Net normalization, four popular normalization methods are reviewed, then Instance-Layer Normalization (ILN) is proposed. It uses a sigmoid function to linearly weight the feature map after instance normalization and layer normalization, and cascades group normalization after the weighted feature map. Detailed validation results potentially demonstrate the practical advantages of the proposed ILN for effective and robust segmentation of different anatomies. For network architecture design in training Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs), the newly proposed ACNN is compared to traditional U-Net where max-pooling and deconvolutional layers are essential. Only convolutional layers are used in the proposed ACNN with different atrous rates and it has been shown that the method is able to provide a fully-covered receptive field with a minimum number of atrous convolutional layers. ACNN enhances the robustness and generalizability of the analysis scheme by cascading multiple atrous blocks. Validation results have shown the proposed method achieves comparable results to the U-Net in terms of medical image segmentation, whilst reducing the trainable parameters, thus improving the convergence and real-time instantiation speed. For 3D shape instantiation of soft and deforming organs during MIS, Sparse Principle Component Analysis (SPCA) has been used to analyse a 3D Statistical Shape Model (SSM) and to determine the most informative scan plane. Synchronized 2D images are then scanned at the most informative scan plane and are expressed in a 2D SSM. Kernel Partial Least Square Regression (KPLSR) has been applied to learn the relationship between the 2D and 3D SSM. It has been shown that the KPLSR-learned model developed in this thesis is able to predict the intra-operative 3D target shape from a single 2D projection or slice, thus permitting real-time 3D navigation. Validation results have shown the intrinsic accuracy achieved and the potential clinical value of the technique. The proposed 3D shape instantiation scheme is further applied to intra-operative stent graft deployment for the robot-assisted treatment of aortic aneurysms. Mathematical modelling is first used to simulate the stent graft characteristics. This is then followed by the Robust Perspective-n-Point (RPnP) method to instantiate the 3D pose of fiducial markers of the graft. Here, Equally-weighted Focal U-Net is proposed with a cross-entropy and an additional focal loss function. Detailed validation has been performed on patient-specific stent grafts with an accuracy between 1-3mm. Finally, the relative merits and potential pitfalls of all the methods developed in this thesis are discussed, followed by potential future research directions and additional challenges that need to be tackled.
Content Version: Open Access
Issue Date: Oct-2019
Date Awarded: Mar-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/80269
DOI: https://doi.org/10.25560/80269
Copyright Statement: Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial Licence
Supervisor: Yang, Guang-Zhong
Lee, Su-Lin
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Funder's Grant Number: EP/L020688/1
Department: Computing
Publisher: Imperial College London
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Qualification Name: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Appears in Collections:Computing PhD theses