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Report 23: State-level tracking of COVID-19 in the United States

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Title: Report 23: State-level tracking of COVID-19 in the United States
Authors: Unwin, H
Mishra, S
Bradley, VC
Gandy, A
Vollmer, M
Mellan, T
Coupland, H
Ainslie, K
Whittaker, C
Ish-Horowicz, J
Filippi, S
Xi, X
Monod, M
Ratmann, O
Hutchinson, M
Valka, F
Zhu, H
Hawryluk, I
Milton, P
Baguelin, M
Boonyasiri, A
Brazeau, N
Cattarino, L
Charles, G
Cooper, L
Cucunuba Perez, Z
Cuomo-Dannenburg, G
Djaafara, A
Dorigatti, I
Eales, O
Eaton, J
Van Elsland, S
Fitzjohn, R
Gaythorpe, K
Green, W
Hallett, T
Hinsley, W
Imai, N
Jeffrey, B
Knock, E
Laydon, D
Lees, J
Nedjati Gilani, G
Nouvellet, P
Okell, L
Ower, A
Parag, K
Siveroni, I
Thompson, H
Verity, R
Walker, P
Walters, C
Wang, Y
Watson, O
Whittles, L
Ghani, A
Ferguson, N
Riley, S
Donnelly, C
Bhatt, S
Flaxman, S
Item Type: Report
Abstract: our estimates show that the percentage of individuals that have been infected is 4.1% [3.7%-4.5%], with wide variation between states. For all states, even for the worst affected states, we estimate that less than a quarter of the population has been infected; in New York, for example, we estimate that 16.6% [12.8%-21.6%] of individuals have been infected to date. Our attack rates for New York are in line with those from recent serological studies [1] broadly supporting our choice of infection fatality rate. There is variation in the initial reproduction number, which is likely due to a range of factors; we find a strong association between the initial reproduction number with both population density (measured at the state level) and the chronological date when 10 cumulative deaths occurred (a crude estimate of the date of locally sustained transmission). Our estimates suggest that the epidemic is not under control in much of the US: as of 17 May 2020 the reproduction number is above the critical threshold (1.0) in 24 [95% CI: 20-30] states. Higher reproduction numbers are geographically clustered in the South and Midwest, where epidemics are still developing, while we estimate lower reproduction numbers in states that have already suffered high COVID-19 mortality (such as the Northeast). These estimates suggest that caution must be taken in loosening current restrictions if effective additional measures are not put in place. We predict that increased mobility following relaxation of social distancing will lead to resurgence of transmission, keeping all else constant. We predict that deaths over the next two-month period could exceed current cumulative deaths by greater than two-fold, if the relationship between mobility and transmission remains unchanged. Our results suggest that factors modulating transmission such as rapid testing, contact tracing and behavioural precautions are crucial to offset the rise of transmission associated with loosening of social distancing. Overall, we show that while all US states have substantially reduced their reproduction numbers, there is little evidence that any states are approaching herd immunity and thus the epidemic is close to over in any state.
Issue Date: 21-May-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/79231
DOI: 10.25561/79231
Start Page: 1
End Page: 43
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: MR/R015600/1
Keywords: COVID19
United States
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Mathematics
Faculty of Medicine
Imperial College London COVID-19
School of Public Health
Faculty of Natural Sciences

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