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Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

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Title: Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans
Authors: O'Keefe, SJ
Li, JV
Lahti, L
Ou, J
Carbonero, F
Mohammed, K
Posma, JM
Kinross, J
Wahl, E
Ruder, E
Vipperla, K
Naidoo, V
Mtshali, L
Tims, S
Puylaert, PG
DeLany, J
Krasinskas, A
Benefiel, AC
Kaseb, HO
Newton, K
Nicholson, JK
De Vos, WM
Gaskins, HR
Zoetendal, EG
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.
Issue Date: 28-Apr-2015
Date of Acceptance: 20-Jan-2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/78810
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7342
ISSN: 2041-1723
Publisher: Nature Research
Start Page: 1
End Page: 14
Journal / Book Title: Nature Communications
Volume: 6
Issue: 6342
Copyright Statement: 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Sponsor/Funder: SOCIÉTÉ DES PRODUITS NESTLÉ S.A.
National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
Funder's Grant Number: Contract Ref:RDLS015375
CNVA00053235 (129072-2)
Keywords: Science & Technology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
BUTYRATE-PRODUCING BACTERIA
RESISTANT STARCH
COLON-CANCER
PHYLOGENETIC MICROARRAY
MICROBIAL METABOLITES
CELL-PROLIFERATION
GENE-EXPRESSION
BILE-ACIDS
RED MEAT
MUCOSA
African Americans
Aged
Biomarkers
Colon
Colonic Neoplasms
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Diet, High-Fat
Dietary Fiber
Feces
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Inflammation
Intestinal Mucosa
Metabolome
Microbiota
Middle Aged
Rural Population
South Africa
Urine
Intestinal Mucosa
Colon
Urine
Feces
Humans
Colonic Neoplasms
Inflammation
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Dietary Fiber
Aged
Middle Aged
African Americans
Rural Population
South Africa
Metabolome
Diet, High-Fat
Healthy Volunteers
Microbiota
Biomarkers
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: England
Open Access location: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms7342
Article Number: 6342
Online Publication Date: 2015-04-28
Appears in Collections:Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction
Department of Surgery and Cancer
Faculty of Medicine