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Microwave characterization of low-loss FDM 3-D printed ABS with dielectric-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguide spectroscopy

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Title: Microwave characterization of low-loss FDM 3-D printed ABS with dielectric-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguide spectroscopy
Authors: Sun, J
Dawood, A
Otter, W
Ridler, N
Lucyszyn, S
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Over time the accuracy and speed by which a material can be characterized should improve. Today, the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) methodology represents a well-established method for extracting complex dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, with the use of a modern vector network analyzer. However, as will be seen, this approach suffers from three fundamental limitations to accuracy. Challenging NRW methods requires a methodical and robust investigation. To this end, using a dielectric-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguide, five independent approaches are employed to accurately characterize the sample at the Fabry-Pérot resonance frequency (non-frequency dispersive modeling). In addition, manual Graphical and automated Renormalization spectroscopic approaches are introduced for the first time in waveguide. The results from these various modeling strategies are then compared and contrasted to NRW approaches. As a timely exemplar, 3-D printed acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) samples are characterized and the results compared with existing data available in the open literature. It is found that the various Fabry-Pérot resonance model results all agree with one another and validate the two new spectroscopic approaches; in so doing, exposing three limitations of the NRW methods. It is also shown that extracted dielectric properties for ABS differ from previously reported results and reasons for this are discussed. From measurement noise resilience analysis, a methodology is presented for determining the upper-bound signal-to-noise ratio for the vector network analyzer (not normally associated with such instrumentation). Finally, fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-D printing results in a non-homogeneous sample that excites open-box mode resonances. This phenomenon is investigated for the first time, analytically and with various modeling strategies.
Issue Date: 4-Jul-2019
Date of Acceptance: 29-Jun-2019
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/71744
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2926717
ISSN: 2169-3536
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Start Page: 95455
End Page: 95486
Journal / Book Title: IEEE Access
Volume: 7
Copyright Statement: © 2019 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
UK Space Agency
UK Space Agency
Funder's Grant Number: EP/M001121/1
ICiC funding 2015/16
PO No: 454400
Keywords: Science & Technology
Computer Science, Information Systems
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic
Computer Science
3-D printing
additive manufacturing
Fabry-Perot resonance
open-box mode resonance
rectangular waveguide
Publication Status: Published online
Open Access location: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8755836/
Article Number: Access-2019-22585
Online Publication Date: 2019-07-04
Appears in Collections:Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering