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Laboratory air-entraining breaking waves: Imaging visible foam signatures to estimate energy dissipation

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Title: Laboratory air-entraining breaking waves: Imaging visible foam signatures to estimate energy dissipation
Authors: Callaghan, AH
Deane, GB
Stokes, MD
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Oceanic air‐entraining breaking waves fundamentally influence weather and climate through bubble‐mediated ocean‐atmosphere exchanges, and influence marine engineering design by impacting statistics of wave heights, crest heights, and wave loading. However, estimating individual breaking wave energy dissipation in the field remains a fundamental problem. Using laboratory experiments, we introduce a new method to estimate energy dissipation by individual breaking waves using above‐water images of evolving foam. The data show the volume of the breaking wave two‐phase flow integrated in time during active breaking scales linearly with wave energy dissipated. To determine the volume time‐integral, above‐water images of surface foam provide the breaking wave timescale and horizontal extent of the submerged bubble plume, and the foam decay time provides an estimate of the bubble plume penetration depth. We anticipate that this novel remote sensing method will improve predictions of air‐sea exchanges, validate models of wave energy dissipation, and inform ocean engineering design.
Issue Date: 16-Nov-2016
Date of Acceptance: 24-Oct-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/69241
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071226
ISSN: 0094-8276
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Start Page: 11320
End Page: 11328
Journal / Book Title: Geophysical Research Letters
Volume: 43
Issue: 21
Copyright Statement: ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Geology
WHITECAPS
DEPENDENCE
MD Multidisciplinary
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2016-10-26
Appears in Collections:Civil and Environmental Engineering



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