A novel in-ear sensor to determine sleep latency during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in healthy adults with and without sleep restriction

Title: A novel in-ear sensor to determine sleep latency during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in healthy adults with and without sleep restriction
Authors: Alqurashi, YD
Nakamura, T
Goverdovsky, V
Moss, J
Polkey, MI
Mandic, DP
Morrell, MJ
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Objectives: Detecting sleep latency during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) using electroencephalogram (scalp-EEG) is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel in-ear sensor (in-ear EEG) to detect the sleep latency, compared to scalp-EEG, during MSLT in healthy adults, with and without sleep restriction. Methods: We recruited 25 healthy adults (28.5±5.3 years) who participated in two MSLTs with simultaneous recording of scalp and in-ear EEG. Each test followed a randomly assigned sleep restriction (≤5 hours sleep) or usual night sleep (≥7 hours sleep). Reaction time and Stroop test were used to assess the functional impact of the sleep restriction. The EEGs were scored blind to the mode of measurement and study conditions, using American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2012 criteria. The Agreement between the scalp and in-ear EEG was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Technically acceptable data were obtained from 23 adults during 69 out of 92 naps in the sleep restriction condition and 25 adults during 85 out of 100 naps in the usual night sleep. Meaningful sleep restrictions were confirmed by an increase in the reaction time (mean ± SD: 238±30 ms vs 228±27 ms; P=0.045). In the sleep restriction condition, the in-ear EEG exhibited a sensitivity of 0.93 and specificity of 0.80 for detecting sleep latency, with a substantial agreement (κ=0.71), whereas after the usual night’s sleep, the in-ear EEG exhibited a sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.89, again with a substantial agreement (κ=0.79). Conclusion: The in-ear sensor was able to detect reduced sleep latency following sleep restriction, which was sufficient to impair both the reaction time and cognitive function. Substantial agreement was observed between the scalp and in-ear EEG when measuring sleep latency. This new in-ear EEG technology is shown to have a significant value as a convenient measure for sleep latency.
Issue Date: 19-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance: 17-Aug-2018
ISSN: 1179-1608
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Start Page: 385
End Page: 396
Journal / Book Title: Nature and Science of Sleep
Volume: 10
Copyright Statement: © 2018 Alqurashi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Clinical Neurology
Neurosciences & Neurology
in-ear EEG
multiple sleep latency test
excessive daytime sleepiness
sleep onset
sleep restriction
1103 Clinical Sciences
1109 Neurosciences
1701 Psychology
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Electrical and Electronic Engineering
National Heart and Lung Institute
Airway Disease
Faculty of Medicine

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