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Brain state and polarity dependent modulation of brain networks by transcranial direct current stimulation

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Title: Brain state and polarity dependent modulation of brain networks by transcranial direct current stimulation
Authors: Li, L
Ribeiro Violante, I
Leech, R
Ross, E
Hampshire, A
Opitz, A
Rothwell, J
Carmichael, D
Sharp, D
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Despite its widespread use in cognitive studies, there is still limited understanding of whether and how transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates brain network function. To clarify its physiological effects, we assessed brain network function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simultaneously acquired during tDCS stimulation. Cognitive state was manipulated by having subjects perform a Choice Reaction Task or being at “rest.” A novel factorial design was used to assess the effects of brain state and polarity. Anodal and cathodal tDCS were applied to the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), a region involved in controlling activity large‐scale intrinsic connectivity networks during switches of cognitive state. tDCS produced widespread modulation of brain activity in a polarity and brain state dependent manner. In the absence of task, the main effect of tDCS was to accentuate default mode network (DMN) activation and salience network (SN) deactivation. In contrast, during task performance, tDCS increased SN activation. In the absence of task, the main effect of anodal tDCS was more pronounced, whereas cathodal tDCS had a greater effect during task performance. Cathodal tDCS also accentuated the within‐DMN connectivity associated with task performance. There were minimal main effects of stimulation on network connectivity. These results demonstrate that rIFG tDCS can modulate the activity and functional connectivity of large‐scale brain networks involved in cognitive function, in a brain state and polarity dependent manner. This study provides an important insight into mechanisms by which tDCS may modulate cognitive function, and also has implications for the design of future stimulation studies.
Issue Date: 15-Feb-2019
Date of Acceptance: 3-Oct-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/65224
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24420
ISSN: 1065-9471
Publisher: Wiley
Start Page: 904
End Page: 915
Journal / Book Title: Human Brain Mapping
Volume: 40
Issue: 3
Copyright Statement: © 2018 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) , which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sponsor/Funder: National Institute for Health Research
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Funder's Grant Number: NIHR-RP-011-048
RDC04 79560
Keywords: default mode network
magnetic resonance imaging
salience network
1109 Neurosciences
1702 Cognitive Science
Experimental Psychology
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2018-10-30
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine (up to 2019)