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O+ Escape During the Extreme Space Weather Event of 4-10 September 2017

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Title: O+ Escape During the Extreme Space Weather Event of 4-10 September 2017
Authors: Schillings, A
Nilsson, H
Slapak, R
Wintoft, P
Yamauchi, M
Wik, M
Dandouras, I
Carr, CM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: We have investigated the consequences of extreme space weather on ion outflow from the polar ionosphere by analyzing the solar storm that occurred early September 2017, causing a severe geomagnetic storm. Several X‐flares and coronal mass ejections were observed between 4 and 10 September. The first shock—likely associated with a coronal mass ejection—hit the Earth late on 6 September, produced a storm sudden commencement, and began the initial phase of the storm. It was followed by a second shock, approximately 24 hr later, that initiated the main phase and simultaneously the Dst index dropped to Dst = −142 nT and Kp index reached Kp = 8. Using COmposition DIstribution Function data on board Cluster satellite 4, we estimated the ionospheric O+ outflow before and after the second shock. We found an enhancement in the polar cap by a factor of 3 for an unusually high ionospheric O+ outflow (mapped to an ionospheric reference altitude) of 1013 m−2 s−1. We suggest that this high ionospheric O+ outflow is due to a preheating of the ionosphere by the multiple X‐flares. Finally, we briefly discuss the space weather consequences on the magnetosphere as a whole and the enhanced O+ outflow in connection with enhanced satellite drag.
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2018
Date of Acceptance: 10-Aug-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/64932
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018SW001881
ISSN: 1539-4956
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Start Page: 1363
End Page: 1376
Journal / Book Title: Space Weather-the International Journal of Research and Applications
Volume: 16
Issue: 9
Copyright Statement: ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Sponsor/Funder: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Funder's Grant Number: ST/P003427/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Geochemistry & Geophysics
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
HIGH-ALTITUDE CUSP
OCTOBER 2003
EARTHS MAGNETOSPHERE
CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS
GEOMAGNETIC STORMS
MAGNETIC STORMS
PLASMA SHEET
OUTFLOW
WIND
ENERGIZATION
0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2018-08-23
Appears in Collections:Space and Atmospheric Physics
Physics
Faculty of Natural Sciences