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The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study

Title: The relationship between bicycle commuting and perceived stress: a cross-sectional study
Authors: Avila-Palencia, I
De Nazelle, A
Cole-Hunter, T
Donaire-Gonzalez, D
Jerrett, M
Rodriguez, DA
Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Introduction Active commuting — walking and bicycling for travel to and/or from work or educational addresses — may facilitate daily, routine physical activity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between active commuting and commuting stress; however, there are no studies examining the relationship between solely bicycle commuting and perceived stress, or studies that account for environmental determinants of bicycle commuting and stress. The current study evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting, among working or studying adults in a dense urban setting, and perceived stress. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 788 adults who regularly travelled to work or study locations (excluding those who only commuted on foot) in Barcelona, Spain. Participants responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour from June 2011 through to May 2012. Participants were categorised as either bicycle commuters or non-bicycle commuters, and (based on the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-4) as either stressed or non-stressed. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance models of stress status based on exposures with bicycle commuting were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Results Bicycle commuters had significantly lower risk of being stressed than non-bicycle commuters (Relative Risk; RR (95% CI)=0.73 (0.60 to 0.89), p=0.001). Bicycle commuters who bicycled 4 days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.42 (0.24 to 0.73), p=0.002) and those who bicycled 5 or more days per week (RR (95% CI)=0.57 (0.42 to 0.77), p<0.001) had lower risk of being stressed than those who bicycled less than 4 days. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual and environmental confounders and when using different cut-offs of perceived stress. Conclusions Stress reduction may be an important consequence of routine bicycle use and should be considered by decision makers as another potential benefit of its promotion.
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2017
Date of Acceptance: 7-Apr-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/54440
DOI: https;//dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013542
ISSN: 2044-6055
Publisher: BMJ Journals
Journal / Book Title: BMJ Open
Volume: 7
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
ACTIVE-TRANSPORT
MENTAL-HEALTH
BODY-WEIGHT
LEISURE-TIME
WORK
ENVIRONMENT
SUPPORT
TRAVEL
SATISFACTION
Bicycling
Commuting
Physical activity
Stress
Survey
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: ARTN e013542
Appears in Collections:Centre for Environmental Policy
Faculty of Natural Sciences