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Review article: The human intestinal virome in health and disease

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ATP_Virome_Review_Accepted_August_2017_SC_LH.pdfAccepted version1.1 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Carding_et_al-2017-Alimentary_Pharmacology_&_Therapeutics.pdfPublished version1.05 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Title: Review article: The human intestinal virome in health and disease
Authors: Carding, SR
Davis, N
Hoyles, L
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Background: The human virome consists of animal-cell viruses causing transient infections, bacteriophage (phage) predators of bacteria and archaea, endogenous retroviruses, and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. High-throughput, inexpensive, sensitive sequencing methods and metagenomics have made it possible to study the contribution dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA virus-like particles make to the human virome, and in particular the intestinal virome. Aim: To review and evaluate the pioneering studies that have attempted to characterise the human virome and generated an increased interest in understanding how the intestinal virome might contribute to maintaining health, and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Methods: Relevant virome-related articles were selected for review following extensive language- and date-unrestricted, electronic searches of the literature. Results: The human intestinal virome is personalized and stable, and dominated by phages. It develops soon after birth in parallel with prokaryotic communities of the microbiota, becoming established during the first few years of life. By infecting specific populations of bacteria, phages can alter microbiota structure by killing host cells or altering their phenotype, enabling phages to contribute to maintaining intestinal homeostasis or to dysbiosis and the development of chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases including HIV infection and Crohn’s disease, respectively. Conclusions: Our understanding of the intestinal virome is fragmented and requires standardized methods for virus isolation and sequencing to provide a more complete picture of the virome, which is key to explaining the basis of virome–disease associations, and how enteric viruses can contribute to disease aetiologies and be rationalized as targets for interventions in disease states.
Issue Date: 4-Sep-2017
Date of Acceptance: 7-Aug-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/50379
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.14280
ISSN: 1365-2036
Publisher: Wiley
Start Page: 800
End Page: 815
Journal / Book Title: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume: 46
Issue: 9
Copyright Statement: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017 The Authors
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: MR/L01632X/1
Keywords: 1103 Clinical Sciences
1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Publication Status: Published online
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer