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Update on biomarkers to monitor clinical efficacy response during and post treatment in allergen immunotherapy

Title: Update on biomarkers to monitor clinical efficacy response during and post treatment in allergen immunotherapy
Authors: Kouser, L
Kappen, J
Walton, RP
Shamji, MH
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an immune modulating treatment for allergic diseases. Although highly effective, some patients do not respond to the treatment. To date there are no surrogate biomarkers that are predictive of the clinical response to AIT. More and more is known about the underlying immunological mechanism involved in AIT. Through modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, involving reduced ILC2 and enhanced Treg and Breg induction and functionality, along with induction of IgG4 antibody production which have the capacity to inhibit both allergen-induced basophil responsiveness and CD23-mediated IgE-facilitated allergen presentation, the result is an immune skewing towards a more balanced Type I response. So far, however there is not a clear correlation with the observed immunological changes and predictive correlates of clinical efficacy. The most promising biomarker of successful AIT is IgE-FAB as a reflection of functional IgG4. Cellular responses and cytokine analysis gives a great deal of insight into the mechanisms of AIT but may not represent useful or indeed reliable biomarkers in a clinical setting. There is a need for more research for confirmation and interpretation of the possible association with biomarkers and clinical response to AIT.
Issue Date: 10-Mar-2017
Date of Acceptance: 1-Mar-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/49966
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40521-017-0117-5
ISSN: 2196-3053
Publisher: Springer
Start Page: 43
End Page: 53
Journal / Book Title: Curr Treat Options Allergy
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Copyright Statement: © The Author(s) 2017. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: AIT
Allergen immunotherapy
Biomarkers
ILC2
IgG4
Tregs
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: Switzerland
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute