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Uptake of Home-Based Voluntary HIV Testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Title: Uptake of Home-Based Voluntary HIV Testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors: Sabapathy, K
Van den Bergh, R
Fidler, S
Hayes, R
Ford, N
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Introduction: Improving access to HIV testing is a key priority in scaling up HIV treatment and prevention services. Homebased voluntary counselling and testing (HBT) as an approach to delivering wide-scale HIV testing is explored here. Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies published between 1 January 2000 and 24 September 2012 that reported on uptake of HBT in sub-Saharan Africa, to assess the proportion of individuals accepting HBT and receiving their test result. Our initial search yielded 1,199 articles; 114 were reviewed as fulltext articles, and 19 publications involving 21 studies (n = 524,867 individuals offered HBT) were included for final review and meta-analysis. The studies came from five countries: Uganda, Malawi, Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. The proportion of people who accepted HBT (n = 474,377) ranged from 58.1% to 99.8%, with a pooled proportion of 83.3% (95% CI: 80.4%–86.1%). Heterogeneity was high (t 2 = 0.11). Sixteen studies reported on the number of people who received the result of HBT (n = 432,835). The proportion of individuals receiving their results out of all those offered testing ranged from 24.9% to 99.7%, with a pooled proportion of 76.7% (95% CI: 73.4%–80.0%) (t2 = 0.12). HIV prevalence ranged from 2.9% to 36.5%. New diagnosis of HIV following HBT ranged from 40% to 79% of those testing positive. Forty-eight percent of the individuals offered testing were men, and they were just as likely to accept HBT as women (pooled odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.56–1.26) (t 2 = 0.33). The proportion of individuals previously tested for HIV among those offered a test ranged from 5% to 66%. Studies in which ,30% of individuals had been previously tested, local HIV prevalence was ,10%, incentives were provided, or HBT was offered to household members of HIV-positive individuals showed higher uptake of testing. No evidence was reported of negative consequences of HBT. Conclusions: HBT could substantially increase awareness of HIV status in previously undiagnosed individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, with over three-quarters of the studies in this review reporting .70% uptake. It could be a valuable tool for treatment and prevention efforts.
Issue Date: 4-Dec-2012
Date of Acceptance: 24-Oct-2012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/49832
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001351
ISSN: 1549-1277
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal / Book Title: PLoS Medicine
Volume: 9
Issue: 12
Copyright Statement: © 2012 Sabapathy et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
Africa South of the Sahara
Developing Countries
HIV Infections
Home Care Services
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
11 Medical And Health Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: ARTN e1001351
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine (up to 2019)