85
IRUS Total
Downloads
  Altmetric

Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006-2010)

Title: Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006-2010)
Authors: Nouvellet, P
Donnelly, CA
Nardi, MD
Rhodes, CJ
De Benedictis, P
Citterio, C
Obber, F
Lorenzetto, M
Dalla Pozza, M
Cauchemez, S
Cattoli, G
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006–2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.
Issue Date: 22-Apr-2013
Date of Acceptance: 11-Mar-2013
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/48839
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061588
ISSN: 1932-6203
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal / Book Title: PLOS One
Volume: 8
Issue: 4
Copyright Statement: © 2013 Nouvellet et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: G0600719B
MR/K010174/1B
Keywords: Science & Technology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES
EMERGING INFECTIOUS-DISEASES
WILD CARNIVORES
VULPES-VULPES
VACCINATION
SURVEILLANCE
EMERGENCE
EUROPE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
PREVALENCE
ANTIBODIES
Animals
Distemper
Distemper Virus, Canine
Epidemics
Epidemiological Monitoring
Foxes
Italy
Models, Statistical
Rabies
General Science & Technology
MD Multidisciplinary
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: ARTN e61588
Appears in Collections:School of Public Health