Grain refinement of electronic solders: The potential of combining solute with nucleant particles

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Title: Grain refinement of electronic solders: The potential of combining solute with nucleant particles
Authors: Shang, H
Ma, ZL
Belyakov, SA
Gourlay, CM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Sn-Ag-Cu electronic solder joints typically solidify from a single nucleation event producing either a single βSn grain or twinned grains. With so few and variable βSn orientations, each joint is mechanically unique due to the anisotropy of tetragonal βSn. Here we explore the potential of increasing the number of βSn orientations in solder joints by promoting heterogeneous nucleation during solidification. It is shown that large (60 g) samples can be grain refined effectively by combining growth restricting solute with potent heterogeneous nucleant particles introduced by alloying additions of Zn, Ti, Co, Ir, Pd, or Pt. These mechanisms are discussed with reference to the grain refinement of structural casting alloys. In 500 μm solder balls, these grain refinement approaches were less effective and a relatively high cooling rate of 17 K/s combined with solute and nucleant particles were required to trigger multiple nucleation events. With this approach, up to 12 independent grains formed in 500 μm balls of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloyed with Pt, Co, or Ti, compared with one independent grain in balls without nucleant particle additions.
Issue Date: 26-Apr-2017
Date of Acceptance: 24-Apr-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/47948
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.04.268
ISSN: 0925-8388
Publisher: ELSEVIER
Start Page: 471
End Page: 485
Journal / Book Title: JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS
Volume: 715
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Nihon Superior Co Ltd
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: N/A
EP/M002241/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Technology
Chemistry, Physical
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering
Chemistry
Materials Science
Solidification
Nucleation
Pb-free soldering
EBSD
INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND GROWTH
VIBRATION FRACTURE PROPERTIES
LEAD-FREE SOLDERS
SN-AG SOLDER
AL-TI-B
ALUMINUM-ALLOYS
PB-FREE
BETA-SN
HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION
MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
Materials
0912 Materials Engineering
0914 Resources Engineering And Extractive Metallurgy
0204 Condensed Matter Physics
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Materials
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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