Effects of a nanoceria fuel additive on the physicochemical properties of diesel exhaust particles.

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Title: Effects of a nanoceria fuel additive on the physicochemical properties of diesel exhaust particles.
Authors: Zhang, JJ
Lee, KB
He, L
Seiffert, J
Subramaniam, P
Yang, L
Chen, S
Maguire, P
Mainelis, G
Schwander, S
Tetley, T
Porter, A
Ryan, M
Shaffer, M
Hu, S
Gong, J
Chung, KF
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Nanoceria (i.e., CeO2 nanoparticles) fuel additives have been used in Europe and elsewhere to improve fuel efficiency. Previously we have shown that the use of a commercial fuel additive Envirox™ in a diesel-powered electricity generator reduced emissions of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) mass and other pollutants. However, such additives are currently not permitted for use in on-road vehicles in North America, largely due to limited data on the potential health impact. In this study, we characterized a variety of physicochemical properties of DEPs emitted from the same engine. Our methods include novel techniques such as Raman spectrometry for analyzing particle surface structure and an assay for DEP oxidative potential. Results show that with increasing Envirox™ concentrations in the fuel (0×, 0.1×, 1×, and 10× of manufacturer recommended 0.5 mL Envirox™ per liter fuel), DEP sizes decreased from 194.6 ± 20.1 to 116.3 ± 14.8 nm; the zeta potential changed from -28.4 mV to -22.65 mV; DEP carbon content decreased from 91.8% to 79.4%; cerium and nitrogen contents increased from 0.3% to 6.5% and 0.2% to 0.6%, respectively; the ratio of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) increased from 22.9% to 38.7%; and the ratio of the disordered carbon structure to the ordered carbon structure (graphitized carbon) in DEPs decreased. Compared to DEPs emitted from 0×, 0.1×, and 1× fuels, DEPs from the 10× fuel had a lower oxidative potential likely due to the increased ceria content because pure ceria nanoparticles exhibited the lowest oxidative potential compared to all the DEPs. Since the physicochemical parameters tested here are among the determinants of particle toxicity, our findings imply that adding ceria nanoparticles into diesel may alter the toxicity of DEPs. The findings from the present study, hence, can help future studies that will examine the impact of nanoceria additives on DEP toxicities.
Issue Date: 16-Sep-2016
Date of Acceptance: 16-Sep-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/42458
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6em00337k
ISSN: 2050-7887
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Start Page: 1333
End Page: 1342
Journal / Book Title: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts
Volume: 18
Copyright Statement: © 2016 Royal Society of Chemistry
Sponsor/Funder: Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
National Institutes of Health
Funder's Grant Number: NE/H012893/1
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
National Heart and Lung Institute
Airway Disease
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Natural Sciences
Grantham Institute for Climate Change

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