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Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen

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Title: Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen
Authors: Joseph, SJ
Marti, H
Didelot, X
Read, TD
Dean, D
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct. Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions.
Issue Date: 30-Aug-2016
Date of Acceptance: 24-Jul-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/39862
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw182
ISSN: 1759-6653
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Start Page: 2613
End Page: 2623
Journal / Book Title: Genome Biology and Evolution
Volume: 8
Issue: 8
Copyright Statement: © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Keywords: Chlamydia suis
comparative genomics
genomic diversification
tet(C)-containing cassette
tetracycline selective pressure
Developmental Biology
0604 Genetics
0603 Evolutionary Biology
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:School of Public Health