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Hepatocellular carcinoma: Review of disease and tumor biomarkers.

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Title: Hepatocellular carcinoma: Review of disease and tumor biomarkers.
Authors: Kim, JU
Shariff, MI
Crossey, MM
Gomez-Romero, M
Holmes, E
Cox, IJ
Fye, HK
Njie, R
Taylor-Robinson, SD
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: © The Author(s) 2016.Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and now the second commonest global cause of cancer death. HCC tumorigenesis is relatively silent and patients experience late symptomatic presentation. As the option for curative treatments is limited to early stage cancers, diagnosis in non-symptomatic individuals is crucial. International guidelines advise regular surveillance of high-risk populations but the current tools lack sufficient sensitivity for early stage tumors on the background of a cirrhotic nodular liver. A number of novel biomarkers have now been suggested in the literature, which may reinforce the current surveillance methods. In addition, recent metabonomic and proteomic discoveries have established specific metabolite expressions in HCC, according to Warburgs phenomenon of altered energy metabolism. With clinical validation, a simple and non-invasive test from the serum or urine may be performed to diagnose HCC, particularly benefiting low resource regions where the burden of HCC is highest.
Issue Date: 8-Apr-2016
Date of Acceptance: 14-Mar-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/31639
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v8.i10.471
ISSN: 1948-5182
Publisher: Baishideng Publishing Group Co. Limited
Start Page: 471
End Page: 484
Journal / Book Title: World Journal of Hepatology
Volume: 8
Issue: 10
Copyright Statement: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Trustees of the London Clinic
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Institut Merieux
Funder's Grant Number: N/A
RDA01 79560
Keywords: Biomarker
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Warburg hypothesis
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer