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Active air monitoring for understanding the ventilation and infection risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in public indoor spaces

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Title: Active air monitoring for understanding the ventilation and infection risks of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in public indoor spaces
Authors: Kumar, P
Kalaiarasan, G
Bhagat, RK
Mumby, S
Adcock, IM
Porter, AE
Ransome, E
Abubakar-Waziri, H
Bhavsar, P
Shishodia, S
Dilliway, C
Fang, F
Pain, CC
Chung, KF
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Indoor, airborne, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a key infection route. We monitored fourteen different indoor spaces in order to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PM2.5 and CO2 concentrations were simultaneously monitored in order to understand aerosol exposure and ventilation conditions. Average PM2.5 concentrations were highest in the underground station (261 ± 62.8 μgm−3), followed by outpatient and emergency rooms in hospitals located near major arterial roads (38.6 ± 20.4 μgm−3), the respiratory wards, medical day units and intensive care units recorded concentrations in the range of 5.9 to 1.1 μgm−3. Mean CO2 levels across all sites did not exceed 1000 ppm, the respiratory ward (788 ± 61 ppm) and the pub (bar) (744 ± 136 ppm) due to high occupancy. The estimated air change rates implied that there is sufficient ventilation in these spaces to manage increased levels of occupancy. The infection probability in the medical day unit of hospital 3, was 1.6-times and 2.2-times higher than the emergency and outpatient waiting rooms in hospitals 4 and 5, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity recorded at most sites was below 27 °C, and 40% and, in sites with high footfall and limited air exchange, such as the hospital medical day unit, indicate a high risk of airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Issue Date: 8-Dec-2022
Date of Acceptance: 5-Dec-2022
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/101306
DOI: 10.3390/atmos13122067
ISSN: 2073-4433
Publisher: MDPI AG
Start Page: 1
End Page: 24
Journal / Book Title: Atmosphere
Volume: 13
Issue: 12
Copyright Statement: Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: EP/T003189/1
Keywords: 0401 Atmospheric Sciences
0502 Environmental Science and Management
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122067
Online Publication Date: 2022-12-08
Appears in Collections:Earth Science and Engineering
National Heart and Lung Institute
Imperial College London COVID-19

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